Home / Life Sciences / Anatomy and Physiology





Journal of Orthopaedic Research

  What is RSS?

Volume 24, Issue 10 , Pages 1983 - 1990

Published Online: 9 Aug 2006

Copyright © 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.



Published on behalf of
Go to Society Site

< Previous Abstract  |  Next Abstract >

  Save Article to My Profile        Download Citation

Abstract  |  References  |  Full Text: PDF (312k)  |  Related Articles  |  Citation Tracking



 Research Article

Contributions of muscles, ligaments, and the ground-reaction force to tibiofemoral joint loading during normal gait

Kevin B. Shelburne 1 *, Michael R. Torry 1, Marcus G. Pandy 2 3

1Steadman-Hawkins Research Foundation, Vail, Colorado

2Department of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, University of Melbourne, Australia

3Departent of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas, Austin, Texas

email: Kevin B. Shelburne (kevin.shelburne@shsmf.org)

*Correspondence to Kevin B. Shelburne, Steadman-Hawkins Research Foundation, Vail, Colorado. Telephone: 303-902-1249; Fax: 970-479-9753


walking • model • optimization • adduction moment • knee osteoarthritis


The aim of this study was twofold: first, to determine which muscles and ligaments resist the adduction moment at the knee during normal walking; and second, to describe and explain the contributions of muscles, ligaments, and the ground reaction force to medial and lateral compartment loading. Muscle forces, ground reaction forces, and joint motions obtained from a dynamic optimization solution for normal walking were used as input to a three-dimensional model of the lower limb. A static equilibrium problem was solved at each instant of the gait cycle to determine tibiofemoral joint loading at the knee. Medial compartment loading was determined mainly by the orientation of the ground reaction force. Because this force vector passed medial to the knee, it applied an adduction moment about the joint during stance. In contrast, all of the force transmitted by the lateral compartment was due to muscle and ligament action. The muscles that contributed most to support and forward propulsion during normal walking (quadriceps and gastrocnemius) also contributed most to knee stability in the frontal plane. The knee ligaments, particularly those of the posterior lateral corner, provided stability to the knee at certain periods of the stance phase, when activity of the important stabilizing muscles was low. © 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 24:1983-1990, 2006

Received: 10 September 2005; Accepted: 14 May 2006

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1002/jor.20255  About DOI



Related Articles

  • Find other articles like this in Wiley InterScience
  • Find articles in Wiley InterScience written by any of the authors

Wiley InterScience is a member of CrossRef.



All Content

Publication Titles

Enter words or phrases



Journal of Orthopaedic Research

Enter words or phrases

Select a Field

All Fields

Article Titles


Full Text / Abstracts

Author Affiliation


Funding Agency


Article DOI













Need a reprint?

Paper or electronic reprints are available for all content published on Wiley InterScience. Inquiries can be submitted online.

Find out more about reprints



Musculoskeletal Care journals

Wiley publishes a full range of Musculoskeletal Care journals





About Wiley InterScience  |  About Wiley  |  Privacy  |  Terms & Conditions
© 1999-2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.